Key Research

This page presents an overview of research we find compelling, particularly from a social, environmental or economic standpoint. They are guideposts to real-world, practical implementation of biochar, wood vinegar and organic humates.

Aggregate‐occluded black carbon in soil

This study found that the majority of black carbon or char from wildfires found in the soils sampled is comprised of very small particles less than 53 μm (micrometers) contained within soil aggregates. As a comparison, thin human hair is 40 to 60 μm in diameter. Proportionally much less char had a particle size more than 2 mm, and only 3% of the char was not aggregated.

Anthropogenic soils in the Central Amazon

The paper describes the wide variation of mineral and biochar levels found in Amazonian terra preta soils, as well as local inhabitants' perceptions of terra preta and surrounding soils, known as terra mulata (less fertile) and terra firme (infertile).